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Code-based design

Once the global effects are calculated and the relevant envelopes have been created the user can perform code dependent design tasks to determine the required reinforcement content. After the reinforcement area has been calculated or manually specified, ULS and SLS checks can be performed according to EN code, and ULS flexural capacity checks also according to AASHTO LRFD.

For ULS checks of flexural capacity a 3D interaction surface of the section resistance is calculated. Intersecting this surface with the relevant internal moment vector MRes gives the user the detailed information on the level of capacity utilization. EN design for shear is based on the variable-angle truss model. The torsional resistance of a section is calculated based on an equivalent thin-walled closed section. The cross-section parts effective for the resistance in shear and torsion are automatically defined based on linear elastic shear stress distribution due to unit loads Qz, Qy and Tx. The effects of all components of internal forces may be superimposed and the interaction of N, My, Mz, Vy, Vz, and T can be checked.

As concerning the EN code assessments, the serviceability conditions are often governing the cross-section design. Normal stresses and crack width due to service effects are calculated assuming the concrete ineffective in tension. The EN crack width approach is extended into an innovative general method suitable for real-life bridge cross-sections. Arbitrarily shaped reinforced cross–sections are converted into local cracking zones, in which the area of effective embedment is determined. At the same time bar strain calculation takes account of full section geometry.

  • Code dependent design of reinforcement area
  • Design checks for prestressed and/or reinforced sections
  • Considering the effects of creep, shrinkage and relaxation
  • 3D Interaction diagram/surface